Fifty years of obsidian hydration dating in archaeology

whilst in British and European universities, archaeology is considered as a separate discipline.Archaeology involves surveyance, excavation and eventually analysis of data collected in order to learn more about the past.One of the earliest modern archaeologists was Richard Colt Hoare (1758–1838).

In North America archaeology is one of the five sub-fields, or branches of anthropology.

Archaeology in ancient China developed from antiquarian pursuits as well, specifically from the scholar-official's desires to revive the use of ancient relics in state ritual.

This pursuit of his Chinese peers was criticized by Shen Kuo (1031–1095), who asserted that archaeology should be the pursuit of studying functionality, discovering the methods of manufacture from ancient times, and should be studied with an interdisciplinary approach.

In Egyptology, the first known attempts at deciphering Egyptian hieroglyphs were made in Islamic Egypt by Dhul-Nun al-Misri and Ibn Wahshiyya in the 9th century, who were able to at least partly understand what was written in the ancient Egyptian hieroglyphs, by relating them to the contemporary Coptic language used by Coptic priests in their time.

Abdul Latif al-Baghdadi, a teacher at Cairo's Al-Azhar University in the 13th century, wrote detailed descriptions on ancient Egyptian monuments.

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